Evaluation of the antinociceptive potential of sodium valproate in mice

Authors: Lidia Cristina Chitac1, S. Beschea2, Monica Neamtu1, Delia Bulea1, Veronica Bild1              Affiliations: 1 Pharmacodynamics & Clinical Pharmacy, Univ. of Medicine and Pharmacy, “Grigore T. Popa” Iasi                      2 Toxicology Dept., Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, USAMV Iasi

Recent research in the field of algesiology demonstrated the existence of several types of pain, with complex mediation cascades. This fact prompted the use of compounds from other drug families than classical analgesics for the treatment of pain. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the antinociceptive action of sodium valproate in mice. This investigation relies on three nociception models that use chemical, thermal, mechanical (pressure) stimuli, and a model of acute inflammation induced by carrageenan. The investigations were made using male white Swiss mice, weighing 20-30 grams. Valproate administration has been made orally, using geometric progression dose sequences. According to the statistical analysis, we obtained values of ED50 for sodium valproate for each nociception model as follows: ED50 = 21.773 ± 6.786 mg/kgbw. for the nociception model with Zymosan A, ED50 = 11.807 ± 4.035 mg/kgbw., for the hot plate test, ED50 = 19.247 ± 2.207 mg/kg.bw. for the Randall-Sellitto test. The action of the valproate is explained by the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α IL1β, IL6 and prostaglandin mediators like PGE2. The experiments were made according to the European and Romanian legislation that concerns working with lab animals.

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Synergistic interaction between acetaminophen and carbamazepine in mice

Authors: Lidia Cristina Chitac1, S. Beschea2, Monica Neamtu1, Delia Bulea1, Veronica Bild1     Affiliations: 1Pharmacodynamics & Clinical Pharmacy, Univ. of Medicine and Pharmacy, „Grigore T. Popa” Iasi
                   2Toxicology Dept., Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, USAMV Iasi

This study aims to demonstrate the type of pharmacodynamic interaction and the demonstration of an antinociceptive action of fixed-ratio binary combinations between a non-opioid analgesic (acetaminophen) and an anticonvulsant (carbamazepine) as a rational way to treat pain. All experimental procedures used in this study were closely in line with international bioethical regulations on experiments conducted on laboratory animals. For quantifying the interaction, we used the method of the additive composite curve, which allows the quantitative assessment of the pharmacodynamic interactions of binary combinations in fixed proportion. The interaction between these substances is the synergistic (potentiation), as evidenced by the left shift of the regression curve of the combination compared to the composite additive curve. The statistical parameters of regression analysis reveal the synergism between the two substances (Z mix = 39.276 ± 7.54 mg / kgbw. ( Z mix < Z add ) the interaction index γ = 0.387, p < 0.05, tc = 3.753, tt = 3.511, Fc = 10.825, Ft = 4.260). The synergism between the two substances is explained by the specific action mechanisms of each substance.

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Development and validation of a HPLC method for the determination of metronidazole, oxytetracycline and furazolidone in veterinary formulations

Authors: Violeta Tauber (Giugiu), Viorica Chiurciu
Affiliation: Romvac Company S.A.

An isocratic reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method with DAD detection was developed for the analysis of metronidazole, oxytetracycline and furazolidone. The mobile phase consisted of pH 2.5 phosphate buffer solution, methanol and acetonitrile (70 : 18 : 12). The UV detection was carried out at 264 nm, and the flow rate was 1.100 mL / min. The separation was carried out on a Nucleosil C18 column, 5 μm 250 mm x 4.6 mm, which was maintained at 25°C. This method was validated by system suitability parameters, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, precision and accuracy.

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Forced degradation of metronidazole, oxytetracycline and furazolidone studies using High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Violeta Tauber (Giugiu), Viorica Chiurciu
Affiliation: Romvac Company S.A.

The study describes the development of a HPLC-DAD method for the estimation of oxytetracycline and furazolidone in Enteroguard M – powder. The proposed method utilizes a Betasil C 18 column, (4.6 x 250 mm, 5 μm), at 300 °C, optimum mobile phase consisted of 40 mM phosphate buffer (pH = 7.5): methanol in gradient elution. The flow rate was optimized to 1mL / min and the detection was carried at 254 nm. The drug substance was exposed to temperature, light, oxidants, acid and basic hydrolysis, and the resultant samples were analyzed by the proposed method.

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Small guide establishing eco-toxicity of soil and water

Authors: Crina L. Mosneang, Romeo T. Cristina
Affiliation: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Timisoara

Soil and water ecotoxicity is one of the major concerns with important implications for human and animal life’s quality. Consequently, there were appeared many methods to determine the level of environmental pollution, which in the last decade have seen a tremendous development, with the implementation of European and national legislations. The present review is intended to familiarize readers with some indicators of water pollution and soil testing; testing that zebra fish and earthworm bodies recognized as viable and sensitive indicators of pollution.It describes the testing methodology known: acute and chronic toxicity on fish; determining pollution by using earthworms (OECD Protocol 207). In addition, analytical methodology chapter establishing eco-toxicity is summarized soil and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and applications in determining the degree of environmental pollution, and the last chapter is presented legislation manure management in the EU and Romanian legislation related.

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Determination of impurities and degradation products from veterinary medicinal products by HPLC method

Author: Elena Gabriela Oltean                                                                                                             Affiliation: Romvac Company SA

The organic or inorganic impurities in the veterinary medicinal product can derive from starting materials, manufacturing process, incomplete purification, inappropriate storage. The acceptable levels of impurities in pharmaceuticals are estimated by comparison with standard solutions, according to the appropriate monographs. Forced degradation studies determine the stability of the method of dosage for the active compounds and for the entire finished product under excessive accelerated degradation conditions. They also provide information on degradation pathways and selectivity of analytical methods applied. The information provided by the degradation studies on the active compound and finished pharmaceutical product should demonstrate the specificity of the analytical method regarding impurities. Forced degradation studies should demonstrate that the impurities and degradation products generated do not interfere with the active compound. The current forced degradation methods consist of acid hydrolysis, basic hydrolysis, oxidation, exposure of the medicinal product to temperature and light. HPLC methods are an integral analytical instrument for the analysis of the medicinal product. The HPLC method should be able to separate, detect and quantify various specific degradation products that can appear after manufacture or storage of the medicinal product, as well as new elements appearing after synthesis. FDA and ICH guidelines recommend the enclosure of the results, including the chromatograms specific to the forced degradation-subjected medicinal product, in the documentation for marketing authorization. Using HPLC methods in forced degradation studies on medicinal products provides relevant information on the method of determination for the formulation of the medicinal product, synthesis product, packaging methods and storage.

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Diagnostic guide methods in the feline hyperthyroidism

Authors: Andreea Pap, Florin Simiz, Andreia Chirila, Romeo T. Cristina
Affiliation: Faculty of Veterinary  Medicine Timisoara

Given the multifactorial etiology of this endocrinopathies, the confirming the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism encountered many difficulties over the years, not only due to the necessity of medical knowledge, as well as the lack of ability to perform various laboratory tests more or less accessible. So far the methods most commonly used are available: free dosing or total thyroid hormone, triiodothyronine suppression test and one of the methods require special equipment but is not accessible in our country yet for cats is scintigraphy.

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Applications of nanotechnology in biomedicine

Authors: Andreia Chirila, Alexandru O. Doma, Romeo T. Cristina                                                   Affiliation: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Timisoara, Pharmacology & Pharmacy Depts.

Nanobiotechnology is a new field in research, constituting the interface between the life sciences and nanotechnology. In this field, the size of the working range is between 1 nm and 100 nm. This new domain it proposes the exploitation of quality biomolecules and processes involved in the development of materials or devices with definite activity in medicine. Therapeutic nanotechnology seeks to provide specific features that can reduce morbidity and mortality in humans and animals, of which the most important are: a minimal invasive therapy, high density functions and the concentration in very small volumes. The first origins of the concept of nano-medicine are from Feynman’s, who had the visionary idea of the nanorobots and similar mechanisms that could be designed, constructed, and placed in the body to perform cellular repairs at the molecular level. With the priorities crystallization in the medicine domain of XX and especially of the XXI’s century, also nanomedicine gained the momentum. In this respect the review proposes to introduce the reader to this fascinating field. There are provided information about cancer’s nano-therapy, examples of systems, applications of DNA, magnetic separation and manipulation of cells and biomolecules, nanotechnology applications in tissue engineering and many more. Also there are presented applications of nanotechnology in tissue engineering and about nano-robots.

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Report concerning results of laboratory proficiency testing on microbial enumeration level from pharmaceutical products

Authors: Simona Sturzu, Daniela Tirsinoaga, Ioana Tihulca, Mariana Dumitrache, Alina K. Draghici
Affilation: Institute for Control of Veterinary Biological Products and Medicines

The present study describes the results obtained by the Microbiological Control Laboratory from Institute for Control of Biological Products and Veterinary Medicines after participating in the proficiency testing scheme study on low – level microbial enumeration from pharmaceutical products. The proficiency testing scheme was organized by LGC Standards, Great Britain, organization with competences in managing of the proficiency testing scheme for laboratories. Membrane filtration is a microbiological technique used for the microbial enumeration test, which consist in the transfer of the appropriate amounts from the sample, prepared according to the provisions of the European Pharmacopoeia, through a membrane filter, incubating it on appropriate culture media, followed by reading and interpretation of the results. The result obtained by the Microbiological Control Laboratory was 34 CFU / vial, and the value attributed by LGC Standards was 30 CFU / vial.The Z- scores were 0,16 and the performance of Microbiological Control Laboratory was very good for low-level microbial enumeration from sample.

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Report regarding the microbiological quality control of the veterinary pharmaceutical products during 2013

Authors: Simona Sturzu, Daniela Tirsinoaga, Ioana Tihulca, Mariana Dumitrache, Alina K. Draghici Affiliation: Institute for Control of Veterinary Biological Products and Medicines

The microbiological contamination of pharmaceutical products could have major consequences on the physical –chemical characteristics, safety and efficiency of the medicinal products and also on the out of specification products recall-associated costs. Quality control of the pharmaceutical products should be a major objective for both the pharmaceutical industry as well as for the official quality control laboratories and the final results of these tests should provide most accurate data regarding the safety and the efficiency of the controlled pharmaceutical products. This report is presenting the results which were obtained in 2013 in the Microbiological Control Laboratory following the quality control of the products according to their pharmaceutical form and therapeutical class.

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