Authors: Romeo T. Cristina1, Roberto Villa2, Olimpia-Ines Lupu (Paută)1, Alexandru Doma1
Affiliation: 1 USAMVB Timisoara, Facultatea de Medicina Veterinara 2 Universita di Milano, Facolta di Medicina Veterinaria
One of the diseases that cause great damage in the pig breeding farms, Brachyspyra swine dysentery has a special importance because involve great losses both by growth failure and high mortality and significant costs to the prevention and control. The study was conducted in a swine farm in Timis County, where the disease was originally identified in autumn of year 2009. Cumulative adverse conditions have affected the rate of morbidity and mortality. The most common clinical developments in the unit were usually acute and subacute. Research included: a comparative study of the effectiveness of tiamulin fumarate, hydrogenated and dimetridazole powder in sick acute and subacute forms in piglets, at the weaning period; the comparative study of efficiency in therapy of soluble tiamulin (the tiamulin fumarate-hydrogenated) and of the injection of piglets effective and the study of growth indicators: average daily gain.
Group I consisted in 15 piglets with an average weight per lot of 7.60 kg/head (batch weight: 114kg) received p.o. dimetridazole insoluble powder (Romvac Bucharest), mixed in feed, for 5 days dose of 25mg kg.bw. During the observation, two mortalities were recorded, representing 13.33% of the treated lot. Other animals from the group were clinically cured, the signs of the disease gradually disappeared, and the temperature returned to normal enteric symptoms. The observation period after the 21 days of experiment, the batch weight was 114.2 kg, corresponding to growth registered 95.5 g/head/day.
Group II, of 15 pigs with enteritis clinical signs, have had an average weight per lot of 7.48 kg/head, and he has undergone treatment with tiamulin product (Novartis Animal Health) soluble granules, in drinking water. Treatments were performed for 5 consecutive days at a dose of 60 mg/litre of drinking water. In this group, diarrhoea symptoms decreased and general status of the animals gradually improved, no mortality was recorded five days after the treatment, no longer signs of illness being observed, all animals became normothermic. Weight gain recorded on our observation period was 29.3 kg/ lot which correspond to average daily gain of 162.7 g/day/animal.
Group III, considered as control group, was at the beginning of the observation period, established with the average weight per lot, of 7.88 kg/head. In this series evolved enteritis with clear clinical manifestations (acute and subacute forms) and during the experiment did not receive any treatment. Within this lot, in the studied period have died five piglets which represent 33.33% of the group. Consequently, to avoid the unnecessary losses, in the 21 day of experiment, the 10 remaining piglets were orally treated with tiamulin (60 mg/litre drinking water). Subsequent observations have shown gradual improvement and clinical remission to the remaining piglets. In the control group, practically can’t talk about a weight gain. After the 21 day average daily gain for animals remaining batch was 45.1 g/day/animal.
The groups were selected from age group 35-45 days, which are each, composed of 12 heads per group. Group I was treated with soluble granules tiamulin concentration of 45 mg of active substance per litre of drinking water. Treatment was performed over a period of 5 days. During the experiment, within this group there was one death case representing 8.33%. The remaining 12 piglets were cured within two weeks. Initial weight was of 92.9 kg / group, and after 21 days of experiment, it reached at 98.9 kg, corresponding to an average daily gain of 101.5 g/head/day. Although, there was loss of a pig, average daily gain of piglets remaining was considered positive, the group recorded an increase of 6 kg in the 21 days of study.
Group II received in drinking water, soluble tiamulin at concentration of 60 mg / litre for 5 consecutive days. In this group there was no mortality, all 12 piglets to heal within 10 days (cure rate 100%). The final weight for this group was of 117.6 kg (a plus of 24.9 kg), the recorded growth being of 172.8 g/head/day.
Group III was treated the injectable product Tiamutin 200 (1ml / 20kg.bw. intramuscularly for 4 days. Registered losses were 2 pigs, the remaining 10 piglets healing within 10 to 14 days. If this group, because of the recorded mortality (average daily gain 79.1 g/head/day), have not economic efficiency.
Group IV – control has not received any treatment within 7 days of the experiment.
During this time four piglets died (all with forms of hemorrhagic enteritis) and accounted for a proportion of 33.3% of the lot. After those seven days, in the aim to reduce the unnecessary losses, the remaining piglets were treated with tiamulin soluble dose to 90 mg / l for 5 consecutive days. Note that all the remaining 8 animals treated were cured. The economic indicators showed clearly the weight declining. At the end of the experiment, there was a loss of 26 kg and four dead piglets. In conclusion, the comparative use in therapy of tiamulin and dimetridazole, preparations having effect in swine’s dysentery, have shown that, both have certain therapeutic effects, but tiamulin far proved to be most effective. The results come to confirm other studies showing superior efficacy of tiamulins as preventive and curative choice in swine dysentery with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.