Monitoring antibiotic residues in honey

Authors; Monica Cristina Cara1, Gheorghita Simion1, Mirabela Panfiloiu2, Harieta Pîrlea3

Affiliation: 1 Directia Sanitar Veterinara si Pentru Siguranta Alimentelor Timis                                                                  2 S.C. Antarctica, Timisoara
                       3 Universitatea Politehnica Timisoara

Next to the β-lactam antibiotics in veterinary medicine, streptomycin is one of the mostly used antibiotics. High concentration of streptomycin could lead to ototoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Low concentration – as found in food – may cause allergies, destroy the intestinal flora and favor immunity to some pathogenic microorganisms. In 1948 chlortetracycline was isolated by Duggan as a metabolite and this was the first antibiotic substance of the group of tetracyclines. In the present paper there are presented the monitoring of the antibiotic residues in honey from Timis County. The residues of tetracycline and streptomycin in honey were determined by the method ELISA – a quantitative method of detection. The microtitre wells are coated with tetracycline and anti-streptomycin antibodies. Free antibiotic and immobilized antibiotic compete with the added antibiotic antibody (competitive immunoassay reaction). Any unbound antibody is then removed in a washing step. Bound conjugate enzymes convert the colorless chromogen into a blue product. The addition of the stop reagent leads to a color change from blue to yellow. The measurement is made photometrically at 450 nm. The absorption is inversely proportional to the antibiotic concentration in the sample.

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Development and validation of a RP-HPLC method for the quantization studies of metronidazole in tablets and powders dosage forms

Authors: Elena Gabriela Oltean, A. Nica                                                                                       Affiliation: Romvac Company SA, Bucuresti

An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure was developed for the quantitative determination of metronidazole in tablets and powders. HPLC separation was carried out by reversed phase chromatography on Kromasil C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.e.; 5 μm particle size), held in thermostat at 25°C. The mobile phase consisted of methanol/ 0.1% phosphoric acid aq. (20/80 v/v), with a flow rate of 1 ml/ min and with UV detection at 317 nm. In order to validate the method, the following parameters have been investigated: linearity (r2=0.9999), range, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The described method can be successfully applied for the analysis of the active pharmaceutical compound in tablets and powders. This paper aimed to develop and validate an HPLC sensitive applicable method to determine the quantity of metronidazole in tablets and powders, contributing to the quality and safety control of these types of pharmaceutical preparations.

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Development and validation of a RP-HPLC method for the quantization studies of ivermectin in solutions dosage forms

Authors: Elena Gabriela Oltean, A. Nica                                                                                     Affiliations: Romvac Company SA, Bucuresti

An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure was developed for the quantitative determination of ivermectin in solutions. HPLC separation was carried out by reversed phase chromatography on KROMASIL C18 (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.e.; 5 μm particle size), kept in thermostat at 25°C. The mobile phase consisted of methanol/ water (90/ 10 v/ v), with a flow rate of 1 ml/ min and with UV detection at 254 nm. In order to validate the method, the following parameters have been investigated: linearity (r2=0.9999), range, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The described method can be successfully applied for the analysis of the active pharmaceutical compound in solutions.

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Development and validation of a RP–HPLC method for the quantization studies of albendazole suspensions dosage forms of Rombendazol

Authors: Elena Gabriela Oltean, A. Nica                                                                                       Affiliation: Romvac Company SA, Bucuresti

An isocratic high–performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure was developed for quantitative determination of albendazole in suspensions dosage forms of Rombendazol, HPLC separation was carried out by reversed phase chromatography KROMASIL C18 (150 mmx4.6 mm i.e.; 5 ìm particle size), held at 25°C. The mobile phase consisted of Methanol/Distilled Water (65/35 v/v), run at flow rate of 1.2 mL/ min and with UV detection at 308 nm. Method validation investigated parameters such as linearity (r2=0.9999), range, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The described method can be successfully applied for the analysis of suspensions dosage forms.

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Development and validation of a RP-HPLC method for the quantitation studies of fipronil in Parakill suspensions

Authors: Elena Gabriela Oltean, A. Nica                                                                                                   Affiliation: Romvac Company SA

An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure was developed for the quantitative determination of fipronil in suspensions of Parakill. HPLC separation was carried out by reversed phase chromatography on Betasil C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.; 5 μm particle size), held in thermostat at 25°C. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile/distilled water (60/40 v/v), with a flow rate of 1 ml/ min and with UV detection at 220 nm. In order to validate the method, the following parameters have been investigated linearity (r2=0.9999), range, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The described method can be successfully applied for the analysis of the active pharmaceutical compound in Parakill suspensions.

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Development and validation of a RP- HPLC method for the quantitation studies of bromadiolone in Ratitox F

Authors: Elena Gabriela Oltean, A. Nica                                                                                       Affiliation: Romvac Company SA, Bucuresti

An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure was developed for the quantitative determination of bromadiolone (hydroxycoumarins) in Ratitox F product – rodenticide. HPLC separation was carried out by reversed phase chromatography ODS 2 Hypersil C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.e.; 5 μm particle size), held in thermostat at 25°C. The mobile phase consisted of methanol/ 0.1% aqueous solution phosphoric acid (90/ 10 v/ v), with a flow rate of 1 ml/ min and with UV detection at 265 nm. In order to validate the method, the following parameters have been investigated- linearity (r2=0.9999), range, precision, accuracy, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The described method can be successfully applied for the analysis of Ratitox F – rodenticide.

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Some aspects regarding impurities profile in fipronil – HPLC method

Authors: Ana Csuma, Cornelia Pîrlog                                                                                             Affiliation: S.N. Institutul Pasteur S.A., Bucuresti

Using a substance as active pharmaceutical ingredient in veterinary drug formulation requires the characterization of this substance as content in active compound and so in terms of impurities possible present in it, the latter being a mandatory requirement for a drug application. Fipronil is a synthetic product belonging to pesticide class used in veterinary practice to manufacture of some products against fleas, given spot–on or in form of spray, in cats and dogs. The main impurities in fipronil include process related impurities and degradation products as a result of exposure to environmental conditions: reduction, oxidation, photolysis and hydrolysis. A HPLC method suitable for analytical separation of fipronil from its impurities was established. Separation was achieved on a reversed phase column using a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and water as mobile phase. In the chosen chromatographic conditions the resolution between fipronil and its sulphone (the main impurity) was >3 and the tailing factor (T) < 2.0. Related impurities have absorbed in the same band of UV wavelength as the main compound fipronil. Comparing the area of impurities obtained for sample solution with the area of the main peak in diluted standard solution allowed the detection of impurities at concentration

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Pain – Part I. Pharmaco-therapeutic management

Authors: Cosmin I. Tuns, Calin I. Hulea, Romeo T. Cristina                                                             Affiliation: USAMVB Timisoara, Facultatea de Medicina Veterinara 

The complexity of pain mechanisms require different treatments that address to the different stages of pain production, transmission, modulation and control and at the same time can be individualized according to each patient. In this respect several substances with specific anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic activity, tranquilizers, etc. are successfully used in pain, they are supplemented by physical and chemical means. Treatment of pain is achieved by removing the cause that produced it. Elimination of inflammation, ischemia control, of infection or nerve compression, many times can lead to complete disappearance of pain. In the present paper, groups of substances with implications in pain are presented. Are presented: amines, antihistamines group, anti-inflammatory non-steroidic drugs (classic and modern), anesthetics and tranquilizers groups etc. Are also presented other means of pain therapy (analgesic electro-therapy: low frequency effect analgesic currents: dia-dynamic, Trabert, stochastic, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), pain stimulation by galvanic current.

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