Author: Mihai Cernea Affiliation: USAMV Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Medicină Veterinara
Equine strongylidosis study is a worldwide highly important topic due to the serious consequences this disease can induce both by simptomathology and by decreasing physical capacity of animals. Strongyls presence may modify behavior, fertility, physical condition, organism development through maturity, decreases resistance to other phatogenous agents and may even become the cause of death. Due to extension and prejudices these diseases can inflict, diagnosis of parasite invasions has to be made even for those with sub clinical evolution. This diagnosis must be followed by exact identification of the etiological agent involved as well as its genetical, biological and ecological characteristic, and also the possible resistance to specific medication, taking in to account the selection of certain antiparasitary medicine with enhanced efficacy. Regardless of the medicine or dehelmintization programme used, systematic investigation of resistant helminthes populations must constitute a sine qua non condition in modern parasitology.
Authors: M. Cernea, Anca Mãrculescu, Veturia Ileana Nueleanu Affiliation: USAMVB Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Medicină Veterinară
A thoroughgoing study on resistance was achieved for the first time in insecticides, later on finding that, this can be extended also in anthelmintic substances. The resistance to anthelmintics evolved gradually from a simple medical curiosity, to an important economic problem. Many factors contribute to the appearance of resistance to anthelmintic substances. After epidemiological studies on various helmintic populations, it was concluded that there are four essential and distinguish factors that induce the appearance of parasitic resistance: operational factors, genetic factors, biological and ecological factors. In the last two decades there were conceived many tests to give emphasis to the phenomenon of resistance, but very few were accepted and validated at an international level. The motivation for this phenomenon consist in the fact that every of this methods have a certain sensibility, feasibility and profitableness. All these tests have positive aspects, and few negative aspects, that make them hard to be utilized (apparatus and high costs) or there are not enough sensible, so the obtained results are difficult to be interpreted. The use of molecular technique for the diagnosis of resistance to anthelmintics does not represent a viable option in the present, because the data about the intimate molecular mechanisms of resistance to anthelmintics are very few and there are not confirmed by the clinical reality.
Authors: Anca Mãrculescu, M. Cernea, Veturia Nueleanu, N.A. Oros, R. Chereji Affiliation: USAMVB Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
The antibiotics represent the most important therapeutic arsenal in the fight against pathogen microorganisms. Even in the beginning of their use, there was registered bacterial resistance, phenomenon that became an alarming subject in the last decades. There are some types of resistance to antibiotics that are influenced by many factors. The resistance term can be used as microbiological resistance and clinical resistance. The resistance to antibiotics can be a natural phenomenon or a gained one. The mechanisms of gaining resistance in bacteria are genetic or biochemical. Because of the fact that this is an increasing phenomena, data about antibiotic resistance is a permanent necessity in any part of the world.